1740 SCENARIO PAGE



The rules for the 1740 Austrian Succession Campaign given here are copyright 1995 Jay Luo (yaj@cc.gatech.edu). Permission is granted to reproduce these rules, not for profit, so long as this notice is attached.


Credits: Empire in Arms is produced and trademarked by the Avalon Hill Game Company. Many ideas stolen/derived from the 1792, 1702 and 170x campaign rules.


[14.9] AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION CAMPAIGN GAME:

This campaign simulates warfare from 1740 to 1748.

14.9.1 STATUS CARD SETUP:

14.9.1.1 POLITICAL STATUS:
Prussia: Pr(III) [Neu-4]
Austria: As(I) [Neu-4]
France: Fr(III) [Neu-3]
Britain: GB(I) [Neu-9]
Russia: Sp(I) [Neu-5]
Spain: Sp(II) [Ins-8]
Turkey: Tu(II) [Neu-1]

14.9.1.2 TIME:

The game begins in December 1740 and ends after the September 1748 turn.

14.9.1.3 STARTING VICTORY POINTS:

All major powers begin with 0 VPs.

14.9.2 PLAYERS:

If there are less than seven players, the following division of major powers is recommended:
6 PLAYERS: Austria, France, Prussia, Britain, Spain, Russia.
5 PLAYERS: Austria, France, Prussia, Britain, Spain.
4 PLAYERS: Austria, France, Prussia, Britain.
3 PLAYERS: Austria, France, Prussia.
2 PLAYERS: Austria, France.

For major powers (if uncontrolled): At the start of the game, Turkey and Russia are a neutral UMPs with no controlling player, Spain is an active French UMP, Britain is an active Austrian UMP, and Prussia is an active French UMP. UMPs of a UMP become an UMP of the controlling major power. Since this campaign begins in December, no UMPs will change control during the December 1740 UMP control step.

When bidding for countries, the order countries are awarded is changed to the following sequence: Britain, Austria, France, Russia, Prussia, Spain, Turkey.

Base VP Total for each country is 7 per phase, or 224. Obviously some countries will be able to make much higher bids than others.

14.9.3 EXISTING WARS AND TREATIES:

14.9.3.1 WARS:

Prussia is at war with Austria (over Prussian claims to Silesia).
Britain is at war with Spain (the War of Jenkin's Ear).

14.9.3.2 ALLIANCES:

Austria is allied with Britain and Russia.
France is allied with Prussia and Spain.

14.9.3.3 PEACE:

Turkey finished a war with Russia and Austria in 1739 and as a result have enforced peace with both those powers until March 1741.

14.9.4 FORCES SETUP:

Instead of the army setup sequence of 14.1.4.1, land forces are set up in the following order: Russia, Turkey, Great Britain, Spain, France, Austria, Prussia.

The major powers' forces begin with these strengths:

AUSTRIA: 70I, 10M, 8G, 11C, 2 depots, no more than 5 corps, $12, and the BROWNE leader. Both insurrection corps start at full strength but may not be set up on the map. The Tyrol corps will be used only under the conditions of 10.1.5. The Austrian freikorps is not used in this campaign. All Austrian corps must start within the Austrian home nation and no city outside of the Austrian home nation may have more than 1 factor as a garrison.

FRANCE: 50I, 20M, 8C, 3 depots, no more than 3 corps, 40 ships, any fleets, $10, and the LOUIS, BROGLIE and CHARLES leaders. France also sets up the forces of Bavaria. All French corps must start within the French home nation and no city outside of the French home nation may have more than 1 factor as a garrison. All Bavarian forces must start within Bavaria.

GREAT BRITAIN: 18I, 1G, 4C, 2 depots, up to 2 corps, 75 ships, any fleets, $16, and the GEORGE, LIGONIER and CUMBERLAND leaders. Great Britain also sets up the forces of Hanover and Hesse. If option 12.3.2 is being played with, British training applies to Hanover.

PRUSSIA: 50I, 5G, 9C, 4 depots, any desired corps, $24, 10mp and the following leaders: FREDERICK, SCHWERIN and DESSAU.

RUSSIA: 60I, 20M, 6C, 2 cossacks, up to 3 corps, 10 ships, any fleets, $12, and the KEITH, RUMIANTSEV and LACY leaders.

SPAIN: 30I, 15M, 6C, 1G, 2 depots, up to 3 corps, 60 ships, any fleets, $10, and the PHILIP, GAGES and MONTEMAR leaders. Spain also sets up the forces of the Kingdom of Two Sicilies.

TURKEY: 20I, 6C, 2 depots, up to 2 corps, 30 ships, any fleets, $6, and the GRAND VIZIER, OSMAN BEY and AHMET PASA leaders. All feudal corps begin at full strength but may not start on the map. Turkey also sets up the forces of Egypt and Syria; all Egyptian forces must start in Egypt and all Syrian forces in Syria.

14.9.5 CONTROL:

Austria: does not control East and West Galicia (currently home nation provinces of Poland). Otherwise controls its home nation, Silesia as a home nation province, Flanders, Lombardy and Tuscany as conquered minor countries.

France: controls its home nation except for Bavaria as a free state, Lorraine and Berg as conquered minor countries, and the colonies of Acadia, Quebec and Louisiana.

Great Britain: controls its home nation, the free states of Hanover and Hesse, Gibraltar as a conquered minor country, Majorca as a ceded province (Britain actually controlled Minorca, which is not separately represented on the map), and the colonies of New England, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina and Georgia.

Prussia: controls its home nation minus West Prussia, Posen, Masovia (currently home nation provinces of Poland), and Silesia (currently a home nation province of Austria). East Prussia is considered to be an unceded province of Poland, though Prussia (only) may collect manpower from East Prussia as if it were unceded.

Russia: controls its home nation minus Lithuania, Polesia, Podolia, White Russia (currently home nation provinces of Poland) and Crimea (currently a home nation province of Turkey). Livonia is considered to be an unceded province of Poland, though Russia (only) may collect manpower from Livonia as if it were unceded.

Spain: controls its home nation, except for Majorca (ceded to Britain); the Kingdom of Two Sicilies (including both Naples and Sicily), and the colonies of Florida and New Spain.

Turkey: controls its home nation, plus Crimea as an unceded province of its home nation, the free states of Syria and Egypt, and has conquered Palestine and Rhodes.

Poland: controls the provinces of Masovia, Posen, West Prussia, West Galicia, East Galicia, Lithuania, Polesia, Podolia and White Russia. See Rules on Poland, I.1., Below.

14.9.6 REINFORCEMENTS:

The following leaders arrive in the Reinforcement Phase of the months and years indicated or on any later turn:

>
Prussia: SEYDLITZ (Jan 1745)
Austria: FRANCIS (Jan 1741), KHEVENHULLER (Jan 1741), NEIPPERG (Jan 1741), TRAUN (Jan 1741), LORRAINE (Jan 1742), LOBKOWITZ (Jan 1742).
France: MAILLEBOIS (Jan 1742), NOAILLES (Jan 1743), COIGNY (Jan 1743), CONTI (Jan 1744), SAXE (Jan 1745).
Bavaria: SECKENDORF (Jan 1742)
Spain: DON PHILIPE (Jan 1743)

SPECIAL RULES FOR THE 1740 CAMPAIGN:

A. THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION

In October 1740, the Emperor Charles VI died and the male line of the Hapsburgs became extinct. In anticipation of this, Charles VI had decreed the Pragmatic Sanction, which made his daughter, Maria Theresa, his successor. Despite this, after the death of Charles VI, several countries ignored the Pragmatic Sanction and put forth claimants to the Austrian inheritance.

Initially, there is no Emperor. Any of the following leaders may be elected Emperor:

  • the Bavarian leader CHARLES (historically crowned Charles VII in 1742 with French support),
  • the Austrian leader FRANCIS (husband of Maria Theresa, historically crowned Francis I in 1745),
  • the Spanish "A" leader PHILIP,
  • or the Saxon leader AUGUSTUS.
The following are the electoral seats and who controls them:
  • Bavaria (control of Bavaria (must be free state))
  • Bohemia (unbesieged occupation of Prague)
  • Brandenburg (Prussian player)
  • Cologne (control of Kleves)
  • Hanover (control of free state of Hanover)
  • Mainz (unbesieged occupation of Mainz)
  • Palatinate (control of Palatinate)
  • Saxony (control of Saxony (must be free state))
  • Trier (unbesieged occupation of Liege)

Each electoral seat a major power controls gives that power one vote in the Imperial election. During any New Political Combinations Step, if there is currently no Emperor, any major power may call for an Imperial election; each major power holding votes must vote for one of the candidate leaders (if still alive). If neutral, the minor countries of Bavaria and Kleves will vote for CHARLES, and Saxony will vote for AUGUSTUS; other minor countries will abstain. If a minor country's preferred candidate is ineligible (e.g., killed earlier), then it will abstain. If a candidate leader receives at least 5 votes, that leader is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. No other leader may be crowned Emperor while there is already an Emperor.

The major power controlling a leader which is crowned Emperor immediately gains +3 PP. The leader crowned immediately gains "1" to his strategic, tactical and tactical maximum ratings (though no leader may exceed a total rating of 2.5.6), and Imperial forces (Bavarian for CHARLES, Austrian for FRANCIS, Spanish for PHILIP, or Saxon for AUGUSTUS) gain "+1.0" to both their infantry and cavalry morale (which cannot exceed 3.0 and 4.0 respectively), for as long as the leader remains alive and Emperor. The major power controlling the Holy Roman Emperor gains "+1" to all rolls for minor country control for minor countries in continental Europe located west of Poland, south of Denmark, and north of Switzerland, exclusive. Furthermore, the major power or minor free state of the Emperor's nationality (Bavaria, Austria, Spain, or Saxony/Poland) receives an additional $5 of income every economic phase. If the Emperor is someone other than Francis, then Austrian income is reduced by $5 every economic phase.

During every New Political Combinations Step following the Emperor's coronation, the Emperor must roll for leader casualties as in 12.7, even if not currently placed on the map; if the Emperor is "wounded" he is instead "ill" for the duration, and if he is "killed" he dies a natural death.

Emperor status may be lost in the following ways: death of the Emperor as a leader casualty in combat (12.7); natural death; removal of the Emperor leader by peace term C.6; or dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire by peace term C.8. In all of these cases, all of the benefits of controlling the Emperor are lost. A new Emperor may subsequently be elected, except in the case where the Holy Roman Empire has been dissolved by C.8., in which case a new Emperor may not be elected unless the Holy Roman Empire is reestablished by peace term C.9.

Peace term C.8 may only be applied to the major power controlling the Emperor; or, if no Emperor exists, it may be applied to Austria. Peace term C.9 may be applied to any power which has applied C.8 by any major power controlling a candidate for Emperor. The HRE Minor may only be formed by a Major Power that controls the current Emperor, or has applied peace condition C.8 and has not had C.9 applied to it.

Add the new peace term B.8.: In all future Imperial elections, loser should use his electoral votes to vote for the candidate of victor's choice. If the loser votes for another candidate in defiance of this, the victor may declare war on the loser even if within normal peace-time restrictions (the normal 18 month period or B.2 or C.2).

B. INSURRECTION CORPS

Maria Theresa received the enthusiastic support of the Hungarians during this war. While Austria is at war with any major power, the two Insurrection Corps are not restricted to operating within the insurrection provinces during this campaign; they may be moved anywhere within the Austrian Home Nation, and, if offmap, the Austrian player may place them in any area of any insurrection province during a reinforcements phase. The insurrection provinces include Hungary, Transylvania, Military Border and Illyria.


SPECIAL RULES FOR 1740-1763:

NEW LEADER COUNTERS:

The following leader counters are used in the 1740 and 1756 campaign games:

Prussia: FREDERICK (354A), FERDINAND (243B), SCHWERIN (232B), BEVERN (213C), DESSAU (242C), HENRY (242C), LEHWALD (122C), SEYDLITZ (222D*).
Austria: FRANCIS (123A), KHEVENHULLER (244B), LORRAINE (234B), DAUN (244C), HILDBERGHAUSEN (223C), LAUDON (233D), LOBKOWITZ (222C), NEIPPERG (232C), BROWNE (222D), TRAUN (251D).
France: LOUIS (224A), D'ESTREES (234A), BROGLIE (243B), SAXE (254B), CLERMONT (222C), COIGNY (222C), CONTI (132C), MAILLEBOIS (223C), NOAILLES (232C).
Russia: APRAXIN (134A), FERMOR (233B), SOLTIKOV (243C), KEITH (133C), LACY (234B), RUMIANTSEV (122C*).
Britain: GEORGE (123A), CUMBERLAND (222B), LIGONIER (243C), GRANBY (221C*).
Spain: PHILIP (124A), GAGES (234B), MONTEMAR (112C), DON PHILIPE (223C).
Turkey: GRAND VIZIER (235A), AHMET PASA (243B*), OSMAN BEY (132C*).

Bavaria: CHARLES (222A), SECKENDORF (124B).
Persia: NADIR SHAH (243A).
Saxony: AUGUSTUS (112A), WEISSENFELS (122B).
Scotland: STUART (222A).
Sweden: CROWN PRINCE (223A), HAMILTON (223B).

F. NEW CORPS STRENGTHS:

The corps to be used and their maximum strengths are unchanged except as given below:

Austria: The maximum strengths of all infantry corps is reduced to 10I/M, 1C. The maximum strengths of the Insurrection corps are reduced to 10M, 2C.

Britain: The maximum strength of the I Corps is reduced to 8I 2G, and all other infantry corps are reduced to 8I. British non-dominant infantry have a morale of 3.5. British Training provides 3.0 morale for infantry and cavalry. Hanover begins both campaigns with British training, if that option is used.

France: The maximum strengths of all infantry corps is reduced to 10I/M, 2C, and all cavalry corps are reduced to 4C. The guard, artillery, XI and XII corps are not used. Factors in I Cavalry, however, may be committed just like guard factors for a "+1" shift; losses may be taken only from I Cavalry. French corps counters have an intrinsic corps commander rating of "111", and French Infantry corps counters have a movement rating of 3, in both campaigns.

Prussia: The maximum strengths of all infantry corps is reduced to 9I/M, 3C. Prussian corps counters have an intrinsic corps commander rating of "221" in both campaigns. Prussian Infantry have a base morale of 3.5 in 1740, and in 1756 while not dominant.

Russia: The maximum strengths of all infantry corps is reduced to 10I/M, all cavalry corps to 3C, the guard corps to 5G 2C, and the artillery and XI through XV infantry corps may not be used by Russia at all. The Russian guard may be committed for at most a "+1" shift.

Spain: The maximum strength of the I Corps is reduced to 8I/M, 2G, 2C, and all other infantry corps to 8I/M, 1C.

Turkey: The maximum strengths of the janissary corps are reduced to 10I. The Nizami-Cedid Corps is not used.

Minor countries:

Poland has 1 Infantry Corps of maximum strength 8I 2C, 1 Cavalry Corps of maximum strength 4C, 2 Feudal Cavalry Corps each of maximum strength 8FC, and 4 Feudal Infantry Corps each of maximum strength 9FI. Polish morale is 3.0 for regular infantry, 4.0 for cavalry, and 2.0 for Feudals. While Saxony is part of Poland, Saxon troops use Polish morale values.
Holland has 2 Infantry Corps, each of maximum strength 8I 2C.
Bavaria has 2 Infantry Corps, each of maximum strength 8I 2C.
Saxony has 2 Infantry Corps, each of maximum strength 8I 2C.
Lombardy has 1 Infantry Corps of maximum strength 8I 2C.
Portugal has 1 Infantry Corps of maximum strength 8I 2C.
Egypt has a fleet counter, but Egyptian fleets have a -1 in combat (or are 2.0 morale) much liike Austrian and Prussian fleets. Egypt has 2 Infantry Corps, each of maximum strength 7I 3C.
Syria has 1 Infantry Corps, of maximum strength 6I 6C.
Persia has 2 Feudal Infantry Corps of maximum strength 9FI and 1 Feudal Cavalry Corps of maximum strength 8FC.
Any Corps not listed here has a maximum of 8i and/or 2c for European Corps, 5i 5c for African Corps.

The unused French and Russian corps counters can be used for extra minor country corps.

G. FRANCE AND ENGLAND NOT DOMINANT POWERS

France and England are not dominant powers initially, and thus have 3.0 infantry morale for France and 3.5 infantry morale for England, collect $10 fewer during Money and Manpower Collection, and have a fixed place in the movement sequence.

H. MINOR COUNTRIES CHART

		NATIONAL MODIFIERS	1740		1756
COUNTRY As Fr GB Pr Rs Sp Tu STATE START STATE START
If Cv Sh If Cv Sh

Algeria* +1 +2 +1 +1 +1 0 +3 N 5 5 N 5 5
America 9 0 +4 +2 0 0 +1 0 NE NE
Baden* +2 +3 0 +1 0 0 0 N 4 N 4
Bavaria* 10 +2 +3 0 +1 0 0 0 Fr FS 20 2 N 11 1
Berg +2 +2 0 +1 0 0 0 Fr C Fr C
Canada 13 0 +4 +2 0 0 0 0 NE NE
Corfu 7 +1 +1 +2 0 +2 0 +2 N N
Corsica 0 +3 +2 0 0 +1 0 N N
Cyrenaica 0 0 0 0 0 0 +2 N 5 5 N 5 5
Denmark* 1 +1 +2 0 +2 +3 +1 +1 N 6 1 30 N 6 1 30
Duchies +3 +1 0 +1 0 0 0 N N
Egypt* 5 +1 0 +2 +1 +1 +1 +3 Tu FS 12 6 8 Tu FS 12 6 8
Flanders +3 +2 +1 0 0 +2 0 As C As C
Gibraltar +1 +1 +4 +1 +1 0 0 GB C GB C
Hanover* +1 +1 +3 +1 0 0 0 GB FS 10 2 GB FS 10 2
Hesse* +1 +1 +2 +1 0 0 0 GB FS 8 1 GB FS 8 1
Holland* 3 0 0 +1 0 0 +1 0 N 20 3 30 N 20 3 30
Kleves +2 +1 0 +1 0 0 0 N N
Lombardy* +1 +2 0 0 0 0 0 As C As C
Lorraine 12 +2 +3 0 +1 0 0 0 Fr C Fr C
Malta +1 +1 +3 +1 +2 +2 0 N N
Mecklenburg 0 0 +1 +3 +1 0 0 N N
Morocco* +1 +2 +1 +1 +1 0 +3 N 5 5 N 5 5
Naples* 4 +1 +1 +1 0 0 +2 0 Sp FS 8 1 5 Sp FS 8 1 5
Palatinate +3 0 +1 +1 0 +1 0 N N
Palestine 0 0 +1 0 0 0 +3 Tu C Tu C
Papacy +3 0 +1 0 0 +2 0 N N
Persia* 8 0 0 0 0 +4 0 +3 N N
Piedmont* 4 +3 +1 0 0 0 0 +1 N 16 2 N 12 2
Poland* 6 +3 +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 0 N 20 6 N 20 6
Portugal* 0 +1 +3 0 0 0 0 N 12 1 17 N 12 1 17
Rhodes 0 0 +2 0 +1 0 +2 Tu C Tu C
Romagna +3 0 +1 0 0 +2 0 N N
Sardinia* 4 +3 +1 +2 0 0 +1 0 N N
Saxony* 11 +3 +1 0 +3 +1 0 0 N 10 2 As FS 8 2
Sicily* 4 0 +1 +2 0 0 +1 0 Sp FS Sp FS
Sweden* 2 +1 +3 +3 +1 0 +1 +1 N 24 5 12Ru FS 10 2 12
Switzerland +1 +3 0 0 0 0 0 N N
Syria* 0 0 +1 0 0 0 +3 Tu FS 5 6 Tu FS 5 6
Tripolitania* 0 0 +1 0 0 0 +3 N 5 5 N 5 5
Tunisia* 0 0 0 0 0 0 +2 N 5 5 N 5 5
Tuscany +2 +1 0 0 0 +1 0 As C As C
Venetia* 7 +3 +2 +1 +1 +1 +1 0 N 4 1 5 N 4 1 5
Wurttemberg +1 +1 0 +1 0 0 0 N 4 1 N 4 1

  1. Includes Norway as a secondary district.
  2. Includes Finland as a secondary district. In both campaigns, Sweden starts with the CROWN PRINCE leader.
  3. The Holland Fleet is "+1" for combat, and in rolls for the Wind Gauge, like the fleets of Great Britain in 1805. Holland receives an additional colonial income of $3 each economic phase. In addition, Holland has a treasury of $20 that goes to the first major power to control the country.
  4. Part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
  5. The Egypt Fleet is "-1" for combat, like the fleets of Prussia and Austria.
  6. Poland has a lot of special rules outlined below.
  7. Part of the Republic of Venice.
  8. Instead of regular forces, Persia has 2 feudal infantry and 1 feudal cavalry corps which start at full strength and are replenished every December Levy Step. In the 1740 campaign, Persia also starts with NADIR SHAH leader. See special rules about Persia.
  9. America and Canada have no corps, but may build colonial forces. While America is nonexistent, no American trade may occur.
  10. In the 1740 campaign, Bavaria also starts with the CHARLES leader and may receive the SECKENDORF leader as a later reinforcement.
  11. In the 1740 campaign, Saxony also starts with the AUGUSTUS and WEISSENFELS leaders.
  12. In both campaigns, Lorraine is a minor country and not a province.

I. MEDIUM POWERS

Medium Powers are a special kind of minor country, that while too small to be a full blown Major Power or UMP, is also too big to used the same way that most other minor free states are. Poland and Sweden are Medium Powers at the start of both campaigns.

  1. Gaining control of a medium power gains the controlling major power 1pp for each province to a maximum of 3pp.
  2. A medium power is not automatically at war when its controlling major power declares war.
  3. A medium power is not automatically at war when someone else declares war on its controlling major power.
  4. A controlling major power may call the medium power to arms at a cost of 1pp for each province to a maximum of 3pp. It may only do so if the medium power is currently at peace, and then only against one major power (as per section 6 below).
  5. Even if already at war, a medium power may be declared war upon separately from a controlling power. A controlling major power may answer a call to arms from the medium power at the usual pp cost. If the controlling major power does not answer a call to arms, the war with the medium power is separate for the duration.
  6. A medium power may not declare war separately from its controlling major power. The medium power can only declare war on a major power that is at war with its controller. It may also only do so if it is at peace.
  7. A medium power in a separate war must surrender when its National capital is occupied or it loses 1/2 of its original standing army (as calculated from the start of the war, vs current). The victor gains 1pp for each province to a maximim of 3pp. The controlling major power loses 1pp for each province to a maximum of 3pp.
  8. A medium power in the same war with its controlling major power may surrender as a unit with the normal peace rules being applicable.
  9. Money and manpower is collected but not doubled by a medium power.
  10. A medium power may conduct trade.
  11. A medium power has 1 depot plus 1 depot for every two provinces (round up). It may freely place these any time that it is aligned and its forces are set up by a Major Power.
  12. If a medium power surrenders (separately from its controller) to any number of major powers, the victorious major powers may each choose any 2 conditions from the "B" list, with the exception of B.1 and B.5., as if it were a normal conditional peace. The medium power is not however allowed to select an "A" condition.
  13. In the rare case of a Major Power surrendering separately to a medium power, treat it as a normal conditional surrender, save that the Major Power only loses 3PP instead of 5, and the medium power may not select B.5.
  14. In either of the above cases, there is a 12 month enforced peace between the Major Power and the Medium Power.
  15. A medium power may not voluntarily cede provinces, nor may a medium power voluntarily be ceded.
  16. If a medium power is not at war with a major power during a New Political Combinations phase, that medium power becomes neutral, at no PP loss to its controller. (GM's note: This rewards successful defense of a Medium Power, as the surrender cost of -PP offsets the gain of +PP when the medium is aligned.)

I.1. POLAND

Poland has the following corps counters in these campaigns: the Poland Infantry Corps and Poland Cavalry Corps (same as the 1805 campaign, except the Infantry is reduced to a 8I 2C maximum), plus four feudal infantry corps (from Masovia, Lithuania, East Galicia and White Russia) and two feudal cavalry corps (from Posen and Polesia). These feudal corps have the same attributes as Turkish feudals, and must be set up in their home provinces; if the home province of a feudal corps is ceded to another major power, that corps cannot be placed. Polish feudal corps which are off the map during a December Levy Step levy to full strength.

If the Masovia province is ceded, Poland ceases to exist and this rule no longer applies; rule 11.1 for Poland takes effect instead. All Polish feudal corps are permanently removed in this case.

At the start of both campaigns, Poland controls Masovia, Posen, Podolia, Polisia, Lithuania and West Galicia as Polish Home Nation Provinces. It also controls the ceded provinces of White Russia (from Russia), West Prussia (from Prussia), and East Galicia (from Austria).

I.2. SWEDEN

Sweden begins the game with Sweden and Finland as Home Provinces. In both scenarios Sweden starts with the CROWN PRINCE leader. If Sweden gains control of a conquered Denmark or Norway, these can be incorporated into Sweden as per the rules on converting ceded provinces into unceded home nation provinces (See Section Q below). If Denmark becomes a Swedish Home Nation province, then Sweden gains use of the Danish corps and Danish fleet, which will then use Swedish morale values.


J. KINGDOM OF SARDINIA

The Kingdom of Sardinia is a New Political Combination which may be created by Austria, France or Spain, and initially exists as a neutral minor country. The Kingdom of Sardinia may be created if the major power controls Piedmont (the major district) and Sardinia (a secondary district) and may include Lombardy and Sicily (as secondary districts). If Lombardy is part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Sardinia gains the use of the Lombard Corps. If Sicily is part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Sardinia gains the use of the Naples Fleet. Districts may be added to the Kingdom of Sardinia during a New Political Combinations Step. The Kingdom of Sardinia is worth 1 PP to create. Components of the Kingdom of Sardinia are ceded as separate minor countries. The Kingdom of Sardinia ceases to exist if Piedmont is ever conquered or ceded.

Districts of the Kingdom of Sardinia may also be a part of the Kingdom of Italy and/or the Republic of Venice (the same as with certain minors in 11.3/11.4/11.5).

While the Kingdom of Sardinia is in existence, Piedmontese corps have a movement rate of "4" instead of "3" and have intrinsic corps commander ratings of 221.

K. REPUBLIC OF VENICE

The Republic of Venice is a New Political Combination which may be created by Austria, France, Spain or Britain. The Republic of Venice consists of Venetia as major district and may include Corfu, Crete, Greece, Illyria and Malta as secondary districts. The Republic of Venice may be created if the major power controls the major district and at least one secondary district. The Republic of Venice is worth 1 PP to create. Additional secondary districts may be added during any New Political Combinations Step. Austrian controlled Illyria may be added to the Republic of Venice, and though it remains an unceded Austrian province, is treated as part of the Republic of Venice as long as Venetia remains Austrian controlled (the same as if it were part of the Kingdom of Italy, which it may also be). Components of the Republic of Venice are ceded as separate minor countries. The Republic of Venice ceases to exist if Venetia is ever conquered or ceded.

While the Republic of Venice is in existence, the Venetia fleet may be used even if the Kingdom of Italy is not in existence. All ports which are under the control of the Republic of Venice have their trade value increased by +1/+1. (Ports with no trade value, such as Corfu, are considered to be 1/1 while a part of the Republic of Venice).

Districts of the Republic of Venice may also be a part of the Kingdom of Italy and/or the Kingdom of Sardinia (the same as with certain minors in 11.3/11.4/11.5).

L. PERSIA

Persia is a minor country which has no territory on the map. Persia cannot be declared war upon (having no territory). When Persia activates, only Russia, Turkey, or major powers at war with either Russia or Turkey may roll for control. If Persia is controlled by Russia, then Persia is automatically at war with Turkey, and if Persia is controlled by Turkey, then Persia is automatically at war with Russia. If Persia is controlled by another major power, then Persia is automatically at war with whichever of Russia or Turkey its controller is at war with (both if at war with both). Persia has two feudal infantry corps of 9FI each and one feudal cavalry corps of 8FC, and in the 1740 campaign game, also has the NADIR SHAH leader.

Persian forces may be set up in any area on the eastern map edge in the provinces of Georgia or Armenia. Persian feudals may stand down, but if raised, must reappear on the eastern map edge in Georgia or Armenia. Persian feudals which are not on the map are raised to full strength during the December Levy Step. If during any peace step, no Persian corps is in the territory of a major power Persia is at war with, Persia becomes neutral and all remaining Persian corps are removed from the board (repatriated to Persia).

M. THE NEW WORLD

The following Colonial Provinces exist (from north to south):

Acadia, Quebec, New England, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, New Spain.

France initially controls Acadia, Quebec and Louisiana.
Britain initially controls New England, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina and Georgia.
Spain initially controls Florida and New Spain.

Each Colonial Province has an economic value of $3 and 1 CMP (colonial manpower). Colonial manpower may only be used to purchase colonial factors; colonial militia cost 2 CMP, colonial infantry cost $3, 2 CMP, and colonial cavalry cost $15, 2 CMP. Home nation manpower may be used to substitute for colonial manpower (but not vice versa), up to a maximum of 3 MP per economic phase.

France may levy indian factors (morale 1.0, similar to guerillas) during a levy step. One indian factor may be levied if France has fewer indian factors than colonial provinces (or twice the number of colonial provinces if at war with Great Britain) and placed in any French-controlled colony.

Money and manpower collected from colonial provinces replaces British colonial trade (8.2.1.2.2.1). Spain still receives the Gold Convoy in addition to their colonies.

Britain starts with 1 colonial infantry and 4 colonial militia.
France starts with 1 colonial infantry, 2 colonial militia, and 1 indian factor.
Spain starts with 3 colonial infantry.

When colonial factors are set up, they may be placed in any colony under their major power's control. Colonial factors have the same morale as regular factors of their nationality.

Immediately after the Guerilla Step of a month containing an economic phase, a Colonial Step occurs. During the Colonial Step, a power with colonial factors may move colonial factors from one colony to an adjacent colony (either north or south). Colonial factors may be moved into colonies under friendly control, under enemy control, or under control of a major power willing to provide access. A colonial factor may not be moved from a colony under enemy control into another colony under enemy control. Colonial reinforcements arrive during the Colonial Step; militia and infantry arrive in the first Colonial Step after they are purchased, cavalry arrive in the second. Colonial reinforcements may be placed in any friendly-controlled colony which does not contain enemy factors.

3) Factors in the new world are limited to a maximum of 4 per province owned by that power (thus France with 3 total colonies can have up to 12 factors in the New World). French controlled Indian Factors have a separate limit of 1 per province in peacetime, 2 per province in wartime. The American and Canadian Minors have a limit of 8 factors per province. Factors in excess of the limit may be built, but when they arrive as reinforcements, other colonial factors must be removed to make up the difference, or those reinforcement factors are lost. (so militia can be replaced with infantry later on, etc).

After moving during the Colonial Step, a power with colonial factors in the same colony as enemy factors may declare a trivial combat against them. Declaring such a colonial combat costs $2 to supply ($4 in winter). Colonial factors do not otherwise require supply. This trivial combat lasts for three rounds only (no additional "days"). Defending allied powers may combine their colonial units for combat; attacking allied powers may combine their colonial units for combat only if they have declared combined movement.

During the Conquest Step after a Colonial Step, a power with colonial factors in an enemy-controlled colony with no enemy colonial factors present may conquer that colony. Note that indian factors cannot conquer or prevent conquest.

Colonies may be taken in lieu of minor countries as part of the B7 or C4 peace terms, although only major powers with fleets may take colonies this way.

America may be declared as a New Political Combination. America must include Virginia, Pennsylvania and New England to be created, and may optionally also include Carolina and Georgia (which may be added during any New Political Combinations Step). America is worth 1 PP to create; if ceded, it must be ceded as a unit. America ceases to exist if all of its component colonies are conquered. No American trade occurs unless the American free state is in existence. America collects one half the value of all American trade conducted as additional income. American morale is 2 for infantry and 3 for cavalry.

Canada may be declared a free state as a New Political Combination. Canada include Acadia and Quebec (only). Canada is worth 1 PP to create; if ceded, it must be ceded as a unit. Quebec is the major district and if conquered, Canada ceases to exist and all of Canada is conquered. Canadian morale is 2 for infantry and 3 for cavalry.

America and Canada may purchase only colonial factors.

N. MINOR COUNTRY ACTIVATION

2. Poland (Masovia)
3. Denmark (and Norway)
4. Portugal
5. Sweden (and Finland)
6. Saxony
7. Bavaria
8. Piedmont (K. of Sardinia)
9. Persia
10. Holland
11. Venetia (R. of Venice)
12. New England (America)

During each New Political Combination Step, two dice are rolled and added, and the above table is consulted to determine a minor country which will be activated.

If that minor country is neutral, all major powers may immediately roll for control of that minor country; however, no PP is gained for taking control of a minor country in this manner.

If the minor country is a free state controlled by some major power, that major power may place 2I or 1C (their choice) as reinforcements for that minor country during the next reinforcements phase (using the normal restrictions of 5.2.2.2); or, in the case of Persia, immediately bring one feudal corps to full strength (even if on the map; unless besieged).

If the minor country is a conquered nation or a ceded or unceded province controlled by some major power, then a rebellion begins in that country or province. During the next minor country control step, other major powers may roll to take control of the rebel forces; the rebels are considered to be "at war" with the major power controlling their country for the purposes of 4.6.2.3, and otherwise use the same national modifiers as their minor country. If no major power will take control of the rebels, the rebellion is crushed in its early stages and no rebels are placed. Otherwise, the major power controlling the rebels places 2 rebel factors (use Spanish guerillas) in the minor country during minor country set up. Rebel factors follow the same general rules as Spanish guerillas; all minor countries are considered to have a guerilla value of "3". In lieu of 10.1.1.1, if during their controller's guerilla step, if home nation corps, garrison factors, or colonial factors of the power controlling their country are present within the rebellious country, a die is rolled, and for every point the die is lower than the guerilla value, one rebel factor is placed in an area in that country. The rebellion ends and all rebel factors are removed if at any time the minor country is declared a free state, or if the minor country goes neutral. If the power controlling the rebels gains control of the country (whether by conquest or cession), if that power does not declare the country a free state during the next free state declaration step, the rebellion continues and a new controller is selected during the next minor country control step.

O. MILITARY DIFFERENCES

  1. Increased foraging losses: All corps foraging for supply have an additional +2 modifier to their die roll, except for Russian, Turkish, Persian, Syrian, African minor country corps, and for besieged supply. The +2 modifier does apply to French corps.
  2. Blockade difficulties: At the start of a Major Power's Naval Move, any fleets it controls that are blockaded may attempt to "Check the Blockade". Each blockaded fleet rolls one die, and one die roll is made for *all* blockading fleets. If any of the rolls made by the blockaded fleets exceed that of the blockading fleet, the blockading fleets are immediately moved from the Blockade Box to an adjacent sea zone by their controlling power. (Blockades were even more difficult in 1740 than in 1792)
  3. Indecisive naval actions: As per 1792 campaign, all naval losses are halved.

P. SILESIA

Conflicting Austrian and Prussian claims to Silesia caused three wars between Austria and Prussia in the 18th century.

Neither Austria nor Prussia may ever ally or make an informal peace with a major power controlling Silesia.

Q. ABSORPTION OF TERRITORY

If, during a New Political Combination Step, a major power has maintained uninterrupted control of a ceded province adjacent to its home nation for 24 full months, then that ceded province becomes an unceded province of that major power's home nation.

Historically, Silesia was taken from Austria and absorbed by Prussia; Crimea was taken from Turkey and absorbed by Russia; and Poland was entirely partitioned, giving us the initial borders of the 1805 campaign.

R. SOVEREIGNS

	
Country		Sovereign leader
France		LOUIS
Great Britain	GEORGE (or STUART)
Prussia		FREDERICK
Austria		FRANCIS
Spain		PHILIP
Bavaria		CHARLES
Saxony		AUGUSTUS
Persia		NADIR SHAH

If the sovereign of a major power is captured, that major power must sue for peace with the power who captured its sovereign in the next peace step (although if unconditional peace is demanded, it need not be accepted).

If the sovereign of a minor country is captured, the major power who captured the sovereign may, during any minor country control step, force that minor country to become neutral. The sovereign and any minor country prisoners held by the capturing power must then be released.

S. JACOBITE REBELLION

Supporters of the House of Stuart rebelled in Scotland during 1745-1746, forcing English troops to be recalled from the continent to put down the rebellion. Use Spanish guerilla counters for Jacobites (their use outside Spain indicates their nationality). All rules on Spanish guerillas (see 10.1.1) apply, with the following changes:

  1. A major power at war with Britain who has landed at least one corps in Scotland may start the Jacobite Rebellion by placing the STUART leader with a corps in Scotland during a Guerilla Step. That major power then has control of the STUART leader and all Jacobite factors. The Jacobite Rebellion may not be started if STUART has previously been placed this campaign. Once STUART has been placed, STUART cannot be retired from the board except as a result of unstacking. STUART's seniority as a leader is "A" while in Scotland, England or Wales and "D" elsewhere.
  2. Every Guerilla Step of the major power controlling the Jacobites, if the STUART leader is in Scotland, that major power may automatically place 2 Jacobite factors in any area of Scotland. This includes the first Guerilla Step in which STUART is placed.
  3. Only British-controlled (not necessarily home nation) corps may be used to conduct anti-guerilla operations against Jacobites during a British Guerilla Step. Handle as in 10.1.1.2 (consider Scotland to have a guerilla value of "4" and other British provinces as having guerilla value "3" for this purpose). Jacobites stacked with the STUART leader are not eliminated by anti-guerilla operations, however.
  4. Jacobites are moved one area per turn during the Land Movement Step of their controller. Jacobites may be moved only within Scotland, England and Wales. The STUART leader, however, is permitted to leave the British home nation.
  5. For the Jacobites, "friendly" forces are any that are at war with Great Britain.
  6. While the STUART leader is on the board, Britain may only accept a surrender from the major power controlling STUART if it includes removal of the STUART leader (peace term C.6).
  7. If the STUART leader is killed, captured by British forces, or removed from the game, the Jacobite rebellion is crushed; all Jacobite factors are immediately removed, STUART is permanently removed from the game, and no new Jacobites may be placed for the remainder of the campaign.
  8. If the STUART leader is on the map, and the GEORGE leader is either dead, captured by enemy forces, or has been removed from the game, the Jacobite rebellion succeeds. During the next peace step, if at war with the major power controlling STUART, Britain must immediately sue for peace with that power and accept any kind of surrender. GEORGE is permanently removed from the game and STUART becomes a British "A" leader, and also the British Sovereign. All Jacobite factors are removed, and an equal number of British militia factors arrive as reinforcements during the Reinforcements Phase. No further Jacobites may be placed for the remainder of the campaign.

T. Honorable Surrender

Before a field, limited field, or trivial combat, defending Armies may simply surrender. 10% of the factors are immediately lost (to desertion, disease, etc). All remaining factors and all leaders in the force become prisoners of war, and PP are assessed as if the attacker won the battle (ie, if 6 corps surrender, the attacker(s) gets +3 PP, and the defender(s)loses 3PP).


NOTES

Much like France is generally the enemy of all other powers in the 1805 campaign, Austria is the expected target in the 1740 campaign and Prussia that of the 1756 campaign.

AUSTRIA:

Austrian strategy in the 1740 campaign should be focussed on getting FRANCIS elected Emperor, by conquering electoral seats or by persuading Britain, Prussia or France to lend you their votes. Unfortunately, Prussia and France are unlikely to want to strengthen you in this way, as CHARLES of Bavaria also has Imperial ambitions, and Prussia wants a slice of Silesia. You might get help from Britain or Russia, though.

In the 1756 campaign, Prussia is your primary enemy and you should work to ensure his downfall. Don't appear too weak in the south, however, or Turkey may see an opportunity to stab you.

PRUSSIA:

Prussia has the advantage in both campaigns of being able to immediately take the initiative. Austria is your enemy in both campaigns; seize Silesia in the 1740 campaign, Saxony in 1756. Prussia is very low on manpower due to all the provinces currently held by Poland, so securing a few minors or provinces (especially Silesia, for its 4 manpower) is strategically vital. Use the threat of your armies and your electoral votes to leverage as many concessions out of your neighbors as you can. Allowing FRANCIS to be crowned Emperor without a struggle is probably not in your interest.

In 1756, Prussia starts out dominant and will have to fight to stay that way, at war with almost everyone. Britain is your friend, though, and may give you subsidies. Divide and conquer is the only real way to go; try to use your central position to smash your enemies' armies one at a time. Warring with Poland in this campaign is ill-advised unless you manage to come to terms with Austria and/or Russia.

FRANCE:

In 1740, definitely assert CHARLES' interest in the Imperial throne; you don't have to crown him, but if you don't, make sure Austria gives you concessions for it. Having FRANCIS crowned Emperor early will make Austria very strong, which will cause you trouble. Capturing enough votes to crown CHARLES is a viable strategy.

In 1756, Britain is probably your primary enemy; try to conquer Hanover/Hesse and keep your colonies in the New World well-defended. You might consider creating Canada as a free state to increase the number of colonial troops you can raise, although this will hurt your revenue. Joining up with another naval power may be a good idea. Prussia is also a dangerous enemy, able to support the British in Germany, and with too many good troops and good leaders.

RUSSIA:

Keep your southern frontiers garrisoned against the Turks and Persians. Gradually expanding your borders to those of 1805 is an ultimate goal; both Crimea and the various Polish provinces are valuable to you. Poland and Turkey are both quite strong, though, and you must take care not to end up at war with both. Engineering a partition of Poland with several allies may be a good idea. A conquest of Scandinavia is also quite possible, although be careful as your navy is still quite weak. Austria is your natural ally, but will almost certainly want you to commit forces against Prussia in their fratricidal German wars; be sure you will get something out of this before you do so.

GREAT BRITAIN:

Unfortunately, your leaders in this campaign are poor overall, and your forces are lacking in numbers as always. If you want to hold onto your possessions on the continent, best to side with one of the major land powers; probably Austria in 1740 and probably Prussia in 1756. Your control of the seas is still rather shaky; though the Russian navy is still weak, the Turks and Spanish are a bit stronger. Try to avoid facing both France and Spain at the same time if you can. You don't have quite as much money as in 1805, but you may be able to increase your colonial holdings (at the expense of France and Spain) to improve your situation.

SPAIN:

It's not especially likely you will be able to see PHILIP crowned Emperor, since you don't control any votes and are not likely to get any, although if you can somehow manage to persuade the other powers that a strong Spain is in their best interests, PHILIP might be an acceptable compromise between all other candidates. Hopefully the other major powers will be kept busy by their own wars, too busy to intervene against you in Italy, Africa and Portugal. Turkey, however, could be a rival for African possessions. Your navy is quite strong and you should have a large say in affairs at sea.

TURKEY:

Turkey historically was quiescent during this period, except for a war with Persia in 1743-1746. However, with your expanded holdings in these campaigns, you have the potential to make a much greater impact on the game. Dominant power status isn't impossible to attain, even, if you can force Austria and Russia to cede a few provinces. Or, your stronger navy makes conquest in Italy or Africa definitely possible, and war with Spain is much more viable.


This page is copyright 1995 by Christopher Tate / ctate@world.std.com. Modifications have been made by Patrick Havert for use by all gamers at the website where this is currently posted.